The Relief and Environment of the Earth is developing under the influence of exogenic and endogenic factors. The inflow of solar energy is the main source of energy of exogenic processes occurring in the hypergenesis zone. Climatic conditions create a characteristic relief, form elements and regime of the hydrographic network, set the boundaries of glaciation, for tens and hundreds of thousands of years. Heat and moisture balance determines the type and structure of any landscape. A. A. Grigoryev and M. I. Budyko are explored relationship between the ratio of heat and moisture and the type of landscapes, with the result that formulated the law of geographic zonality, in the middle of the last century. The law of geographical zonality shows that the spatial distribution of geographical zones is determined by the distribution of the solar energy balance and the ratio of the radiation balance to the amount of heat required evaporating the annual precipitation. I. A. Volkov studying the similarity of the characteristics of latitudinal geographical zones on the plains and vertical landscape zones in the mountains, came to the conclusion that the thickness of The earth’s atmosphere has a distinct stratification and is divided into several hydrothermal layers, each of which is characterized by a corresponding dominant balance of heat and moisture.
The deep transformation of climatic conditions caused a change in the high-altitude position of each hydrothermal layer of the atmosphere, which in turn led to the spatial displacement of the boundaries of latitude geographical zones on the plains and vertical landscape zones in the mountains, in the era of Quaternary glaciation. The surface areas that were previously included in any natural zone or belt, shifted to other zones due to the changed conditions of heat and moisture, with a completely new landscape-forming environment.
The glaciation of the Mongolian Altai developed and reached its maximum size during the period of planetary cooling and a decrease in regional summer temperatures by 4,5-5 0C, in the late Neopleistocene. The snow line lowering amounted to 800-850 m, and accordingly shifted the borders of the hydrothermal zones. Glaciated areas have been steadily declining since the last glacial maximum. Periglacial landscape formed after displacement upward of the boundaries of hydrothermals and landscapes zones, which causes a radical restructuring released from the ice of the terrain. Periglacial landscapes are important structural elements of high-mountain geosystems. Periglacial landscapes of the Mongolian Altai are characterized by youth and expressed dynamic caused by active nival, cryogenic and gravity processes. Climate is the main factor in the formation of periglacial landscapes, as it determines the dynamics of glaciation, surface runoff and the nature of exogenous processes.
Previous investigation of glacial landscapes in the Altai Mountains
The geographical setting of the study area